Suitability of the Lower Zab River Sediments for Concrete Works / Southwest of Kirkuk - Northern Iraq


  • Ibrahim Mustafa Hassan
  • Mohammed Rashid Abood
  • Lafta Salman Kadhim



Sieve, Aggregate's, Compressive Strength, Concrete


An Engineering study was carried out for five stations in the Lower Zab basin, southwest of Kirkuk, to determine the viability of the Quaternary age sediments for concrete works. The geotechnical evaluation results included that the coarse aggregate's grain size analysis is identical to the gradient class (63.0 mm) according to the [1] classification. As for the gradation of fine aggregate for the sediments of the study area, the results of the granular gradient of the samples after matching them with the limits of AASHTO specification showed that they are identical to the specification with slight differences on some sieves. The elongation and flatness tests showed that the highest percentage of the longitudinal shape is (19.2%) and flat-shaped particles is (28.8%), within permissible limits according to British standard [2], the specific gravity for coarse aggregate was between (2.60 - 2.64) and saturated specific gravity (2.61 - 2.65), and the values of specific weight for fine soil ranged from (2.72 - 2.64) which is suitable for use in concrete works. The results of the laboratory test of the durability tests - The Los Angeles test for the samples showed that the highest percentage for weight loss was (20%), which is suitable for use in the concrete according to the Iraqi standard [3], the results of the laboratory test for stability showed that the percentage of weight loss for coarse aggregate (gravel) by the effect of sodium sulfate solution and for the number of 5 cycles of the samples ranged between (8.3% - 4.1%), which is valid for use in concrete works according to the American specification [4]. The results of the resistance tests - the point load test for stations (S1, S3, S4) within the classification range of very strong - extremely strong, and the two stations (S2, S5) within the class strong - very strong - extremely strong compared to the classification of [5], and they are good for concrete works. It was found from the results of the chemical tests the gypsum content, organic matter content, Total soluble salts, and the sulfate content of the samples of the study area are suitable to for concrete works according to British Standard [6], which is suitable for concrete works, testing the compressive strength of concrete cubes ranged between (24.93 - 18.22 MPa) for age seven days and ranged between (33.02 - 29.76 MPa) for 28 days for reference mixture, Which is (4:2:1 by weight). According to the Iraqi standard specification [7], the compressive strength values of the samples are suitable for regular unreinforced concrete, and in comparison with [8] classification, it was apparent that the concrete produced is of moderate endurance. And suitable for concrete works According to [9].




How to Cite

Ibrahim Mustafa Hassan, Mohammed Rashid Abood, & Lafta Salman Kadhim. (2023). Suitability of the Lower Zab River Sediments for Concrete Works / Southwest of Kirkuk - Northern Iraq. Tikrit Journal of Pure Science, 28(1), 29–39.